Electrical Machines

Development of nuclear power in pre-Chernobyl period

After the launch of the world’s first nuclear power plant, the rapid development of nuclear energy around the world. These trends have reached such an extent that required a special organization to coordinate work in general the authorities for the peaceful use of atomic energy. In 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency was created energy (IAEA, …

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Discovery of the phenomenon of radioactivity part 3

In 1940, the Soviet physicist Georgy Nikolaevich Flerov (1913-1997) and his colleague Konstantin Antonovich Petrzhak (1907-1998) – students of I. V. Kurchatov – discovered spontaneous fission of uranium nuclei. Its from- covering allowed to determine the critical mass of uranium required to initiate a nuclear explosion. However, Danish physicist Niels Bohr (1885-1962) showed that only the isotope …

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Discovery of the phenomenon of radioactivity part 2

In 1902-1907 Ernest Rutherford and his collaborator Frederick Sod- di (English radiochemist) showed the existence of radioactive rows, i.e. sequences of radioactive elements, each the next element in which is formed from the previous one by Pad with alpha or beta particle emission 2 . When studying these atoms were discovered which, according to their chemical properties, were identical to known …

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Discovery of the phenomenon of radioactivity part 1

However, we will have to plunge into history a little earlier, and you will understand why. In 1858 a German glassblower and owner of an artisanal workshop Heinrich Geissler (1815-1879) made a glass tube with rarefied gas, into which two electrodes were soldered (the so-called removable Geissler tube). If these electrodes are connected to different to the …

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Eddy current losses

Eddy current losses

The Eddy current losses with suitable examples and sketches are discuss here advanced.When the magnetic flux penetrating continuous conducting bodies undergoes changes, then in accordance with the law of electromagnetic induction, electromotive forces are induced and electric currents appear. The electric charges that form these currents move along closed circuits in planes normal to the …

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Eddy current losses

Losses of energy during magnetization reversal

The Losses of energy during magnetization reversal with suitable examples and sketches are discuss here advanced. If there is no linear relationship between magnetic induction and field strength, then assuming that the magnetic field is the same at all points of the normal plane, the energy density can be determined by integration from the magnetization …

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Magnetization and magnetization reversal of ferromagnets

Magnetization and magnetization reversal of ferromagnets

Iron, cobalt, nickel and some other materials and alloys constitute a special group of substances by the nature of the reaction to the action of a magnetic field. In an external relatively weak magnetic field, they are able to acquire a large magnetization. These metals are united by the name of ferromagnets, and the phenomena …

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Eddy current losses

Maxwell’s equations

The conversion of electrical energy in machines is carried out using electromagnetic fields, the mathematical description of which in the most general form corresponds to Maxwell’s equations. The first equation establishes the relationship between electric current and magnetic field strength,Maxwell’s equations where and are the vectors of the magnetic field strength and elementary displacement along …

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