development of nuclear fuel cycle enterprises
The nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) is a set of operations and technology
the logic of extraction and fabrication of fuel for nuclear reactors, using
fuel handling in nuclear reactors, its storage and processing.
In Russia, nuclear fuel cycle enterprises are united
becoming OJSC Atomenergoprom, which is part of the State
atomic energy corporation Rosatom (structure of Rosatom
given in Appendix 4). Atomenergoprom is one of the largest
the largest “nuclear” companies in the world and provides all types of “nuclear”
services: mining and processing of uranium ore, uranium enrichment,
fabrication of nuclear fuel, electricity generation at nuclear power plants
and construction of a nuclear power plant. Today in the world market there are
there are only two companies providing nuclear fuel services
cycle in full – Atomenergoprom (Russia) and Areva
Atomenergoprom is divided into divisions. Ore Mining Division
heads the ARMZ Uranium Holding, which manages all
mining enterprises in Russia, as well as due to shares in co-
local enterprises (JVs) control over 20% of uranium
passes of Kazakhstan (JV “Zarechnoye”, JV “Akbastau” and JV “Karatau”).
ARMZ Uranium Holding is also widely represented in other countries.
nah: the company has initiated joint exploration and
uranium mining in Mongolia, Namibia, Canada, Armenia and Ukraine.
Mining enterprises on the territory of the Russian Federation – JSC “Priargunskoye
industrial mining and chemical association “(Krasnokamensk,
Chita region), JSC Khiagda (Buryatia) and JSC Dalur (Kurgan-
sky region). Priargunsky industrial mining and chemical volume
Unity (PIMCU) is a leading uranium mining enterprise
we eat countries, up to 90% of Russian
uranium. Two more Russian companies are actively increasing their uranium production
enterprises: JSC “Khiagda” and JSC “Dalur”, implementing the technology
borehole in situ leaching According to 2008 data, the main reserves of recoverable uranium ores
are owned by Australia, Kazakhstan, Russia, South Africa and Canada. Common world
uranium reserves of the value category <130 $ per kg of uranium amounted to almost
5.5 million tons, and in Russia – 0.55 million tons, i.e. 10% of the world’s stock
owls. This figure continues to grow as intensive development is underway.
exploration of new deposits.
The largest uranium producers are Canada, Australia, Kazakhstan,
Russia and Niger. The total world uranium production in 2008 was
la 44,500 tons, while Russia produced 3687 tons (8% of world production).
According to the development program in 2025, our country will produce
20,000 tons per year and will come out on top in this indicator in the world.
For this, it is planned to organize uranium mining at four new
mining enterprises: CJSC Elkonsky Mining and Metallurgical
combine “and CJSC” Lunnoye “- in Yakutia, as well as CJSC” Uranium mining –
Gornoye company and Olovskaya mining and chemical company CJSC
in the Trans-Baikal Territory. In this list, the project for the development of the Elkon Ura-
of the new ore field (JSC “Elkonsky MMC”) stands apart:
develop one of the world’s largest uranium deposits – Elkonsky
uranium ore region with reserves of 319 thousand tons of uranium (6% of the world recoverable reserves).
The uranium enrichment division is headed by OJSC United
the company “Separation and sublimation complex”, which unites the
tyre enterprises – JSC Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical
binat “(Angarsk, Irkutsk region), JSC” Production volume
Association “Electrochemical Plant” (Zelenogorsk, Krasnoyarsk
region), OJSC “Ural Electrochemical Plant” (Novouralsk,
Sverdlovsk Region), OJSC Siberian Chemical Combine (Se-
versk, Tomsk region).
Russia has the most advanced uranium enrichment technology
on – gas centrifuge, which, despite all attempts, failed
surpass any country in the world. That is why Russia takes
leading positions in the world market for enrichment services (control
takes 40% of the market) and plans to intensify work in this direction.
For example, in 2007, on the basis of the Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical
the combine, two more companies were founded – OJSC International
uranium enrichment center “(IUEC), as well as the Russian-Kazakh
Joint Venture Center for Uranium Enrichment CJSC (UEC).
The IUEC is instructed to store a stock of uranium with low enrichment (3-5%) in
foliage 120 tons. This guarantee stock can be purchased by a country
deprived for any reason of the possibility of buying uranium at its
market in order to make fresh nuclear fuel and provide
uninterrupted operation of its nuclear power. Thus, Inter-
the international uranium enrichment center is an important instrument
the volume of ensuring international security. In the near future
The IUEC project will include Armenia and Ukraine, which have already signed the corresponding
pending intergovernmental documents. Participation negotiations
at the IUEC are conducted with Finland, South Korea and Belgium. Russian-
Kazakhstani project “Uranium Enrichment Center” (UEC), in contrast to
IUEC is purely commercial in nature – the enterprise was created for
construction of new uranium enrichment facilities, which will
located at the production site of the Angarsk electrolysis
chemical plant. As a result of the power of the Angarsk plant
Nata will double, and Russia will strengthen its position in the world
enrichment services market.
The uranium enrichment division is adjacent to the
trade in enrichment services and enriched uranium for external
market (JSC Techsnabexport) and a division for the production of equipment
uranium enrichment (JSC Engineering Center “Russkaya
gas centrifuge “).