Nuclear installations for submarines and icebreakers

The RBMK-1000 reactor is a good option, but not the only one

ny. When the United States launched the world’s first nuclear power plant in 1954

submarine, in our country, intensive work was carried out on

creation of its own nuclear submarine (Project 627). The main con-

V.N.Peregudov was appointed the constructor of the first nuclear submarine, and

work on the creation of the power plant was carried out in the organization

tion scientific research institute-8, which was headed by N.A. Dollezhal – a scientist who participated

together with Kurchatov in the development of the first reactors for obtaining

weapons-grade plutonium.

In order to place the reactor in a confined space under

a watercraft, completely different approaches were required, other technical

solutions. First, as a neutron moderator they decided

instead of graphite, use a coolant, that is, water. Therefore such reactors are called water-moderated – since water is

both a moderator and a coolant at the same time. Secondly, from co-

radiation safety images, the core was enclosed in

thick-walled steel vessel (which is why these reactors are called core

empty) . Thirdly, they took nuclear fuel with a higher degree

enrichment in 235 U. And fourthly, again for reasons of safety

sti, the installation was made double-circuit. What this means is outlined below.

In general, a submarine nuclear power plant is the same as

ground-based – produces steam, which goes to the turbine and rotates the shaft

turbines. The turbine shaft is coupled to the main turbo gear unit

(GTZA). This device is analogous to a gearbox in a car

bile, – only in this case it is not the wheels that rotate, but the propeller.

Soviet nuclear submarine K-3, named in the spirit of the time “Lenin-

sky Komsomol “, was launched in 1957 – after only 3

years after the descent of the American “Nautilus”. K-3 passed running tests

torture in 1958. July 4, 1958 – on this day for the first time in history

ryi of the domestic fleet to set the ship in motion was

used the energy of a nuclear reaction. The K-3 was powered by two

pressurized water-cooled reactor type VM-A.

Figure 4.11 – Project 941 nuclear submarine –


Along with project 627, another, purely peaceful pro

ect – we are talking about the world’s first “atomic-powered” surface ship,

icebreaker “Lenin”. The nuclear power plant of this vessel is

It was designed under the leadership of II Afrikantov. The ship was launched

puppy for water in the same year as the submarine “Leninsky Komsomol”, and

sea ​​trials took place a year later (1959). Originally an icebreaker

worked at three pressurized water-cooled reactor type OK-150, then

they were replaced by two much more powerful OK-900s. Nuclear

icebreaker installations generated steam for turbine generators, which

supplied electric motors with direct current – and those, in turn, supplied

drove three propellers. Only in the first 6 years of operation tation “Lenin” led through the polar ice about 400 ships, and in total

he worked for 30 years. In total, nine were built in our country

nuclear icebreakers, currently “on the move” – ​​six ships (see.

fig 4.12, 4.13).

Figure 4.12 – Nuclear icebreaker “Vaygach”

Figure 4.13 – Nuclear icebreaker “Yamal”

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