NUCLEAR POWER ENGINEERING IN RUSSIA

In Chapter 1 “Scientific Foundations of Nuclear Power” we talked about

that, using materials that absorb neutrons, you can

to create a controlled fission chain reaction. Fast neutrons,

formed during the fission of uranium nuclei, it is required to slow down – for this

It is necessary to use a retarder. As a moderator,

Graphite, water (H 2 O), heavy water (D 2 O), beryllium (Be) can appear .

A large amount of energy is released during the fission reaction

in the form of heat – to cool nuclear fuel can be used

water (or some other substance). The first reactors built

produced in our country were intended for the production of plutonium

( 239 Pu) – fillings for nuclear weapons. As a moderator in them

graphite was used, and water was chosen as the heat carrier. These re-

the actors were called industrial uranium-graphite reactors

mi (PUGR). The prefix “industrial” means that the purpose of the functional

The development of plutonium was used for the testing of such reactors.

In the first nuclear reactors, hot water was simply discharged into

adjacent water bodies, but already at an early stage in the development of the industry

the idea arose about the useful, peaceful use of the heat of a nuclear

division shares; in fact, the development of this idea led to the creation

nuclear power plant.

In our country, work on a project for a nuclear power plant

headed by the “father” of the Soviet atomic bomb Academician I. V. Kurchatov, for

that he can rightfully be called the “father” of the Russian

nuclear power. And not only domestic: a nuclear power plant

tion, which was launched on June 27, 1954 in the city of Obninsk, became

la the world’s first nuclear power plant.

Strictly speaking, this chapter does not consider the NPP device, but

arrangement of nuclear power plants (NPP) . Let us explain in

what is the difference. A nuclear power plant (or nuclear power unit) is a combination

a lot of technological equipment (with nuclear power

reactor as the main unit), intended for converting

fission chain reaction energy into electricity.

In turn, a nuclear power plant is an enterprise , the purpose of which is

The production and sale of electricity is in progress. The NPP includes

dit, as a rule, several power units (NPP), and in addition, commu-

financial services, research department, administration and

etc. (Figure 4.1) Since the current chapter covers the technical aspect of the

production of “nuclear” electricity, then below will not be discussed

NPP structure, namely the NPP device.

Figure 4.1 – Balakovo NPP

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