In Chapter 1 “Scientific Foundations of Nuclear Power” we talked about
that, using materials that absorb neutrons, you can
to create a controlled fission chain reaction. Fast neutrons,
formed during the fission of uranium nuclei, it is required to slow down – for this
It is necessary to use a retarder. As a moderator,
Graphite, water (H 2 O), heavy water (D 2 O), beryllium (Be) can appear .
A large amount of energy is released during the fission reaction
in the form of heat – to cool nuclear fuel can be used
water (or some other substance). The first reactors built
produced in our country were intended for the production of plutonium
( 239 Pu) – fillings for nuclear weapons. As a moderator in them
graphite was used, and water was chosen as the heat carrier. These re-
the actors were called industrial uranium-graphite reactors
mi (PUGR). The prefix “industrial” means that the purpose of the functional
The development of plutonium was used for the testing of such reactors.
In the first nuclear reactors, hot water was simply discharged into
adjacent water bodies, but already at an early stage in the development of the industry
the idea arose about the useful, peaceful use of the heat of a nuclear
division shares; in fact, the development of this idea led to the creation
nuclear power plant.
In our country, work on a project for a nuclear power plant
headed by the “father” of the Soviet atomic bomb Academician I. V. Kurchatov, for
that he can rightfully be called the “father” of the Russian
nuclear power. And not only domestic: a nuclear power plant
tion, which was launched on June 27, 1954 in the city of Obninsk, became
la the world’s first nuclear power plant.
Strictly speaking, this chapter does not consider the NPP device, but
arrangement of nuclear power plants (NPP) . Let us explain in
what is the difference. A nuclear power plant (or nuclear power unit) is a combination
a lot of technological equipment (with nuclear power
reactor as the main unit), intended for converting
fission chain reaction energy into electricity.
In turn, a nuclear power plant is an enterprise , the purpose of which is
The production and sale of electricity is in progress. The NPP includes
dit, as a rule, several power units (NPP), and in addition, commu-
financial services, research department, administration and
etc. (Figure 4.1) Since the current chapter covers the technical aspect of the
production of “nuclear” electricity, then below will not be discussed
NPP structure, namely the NPP device.
Figure 4.1 – Balakovo NPP