Nuclear power of the future

Nuclear power units with a VVER-1200 type reactor, floating

nye power plants (FNPPs) are evolutionary projects.

This means that they use proven, time-tested

change decisions; they are similar to their predecessors. VVER-1200

“Evolved” from the VVER-1000 reactor, and the prototype for the FNPP

served as reactors installed on icebreakers. In the same time

there are promising types of nuclear power plants, in

which proposed fundamentally new approaches to the technology of

the production of electricity by burning nuclear fuel. So

a fundamentally new, innovative project was once a reactor

type BN: indeed, the idea of ​​using it as a heat carrier

the body of molten sodium instead of water seemed 50 years ago very

bold.

Currently, innovative projects can be considered re-

fast neutron actors with a lead coolant (of the type

“BREST”), and thermonuclear reactors. To implement these projects

life requires very high costs – both intellectual,

and financial; but if these technologies are implemented, and from

will turn into traditional ones, then perhaps it is they

will form a new “face” of nuclear power.

Nuclear power plants with a reactor

“BREST”

Nuclear power plants of high safety and efficiency with

fast reactor with lead coolant “BREST” is

face and completely domestic project. The parent organization,

dealing with its development – Research and design

Torso Institute of Power Engineering named after N. A. Dollezhal (NIKIET), one

from the largest domestic nuclear research institutes. The project included

units with a capacity of 300 and 1200 MW have been developed.

The BREST reactor is essentially similar to the BN reactor – however, if the BN

we are dealing with a sodium coolant, then in BREST cooling

the core is carried out by molten lead. Temperature

the melting point of lead is much higher than that of sodium – next

consequently, it is technologically more difficult to fill the circuit and maintain

it contains the required parameters; however, the state of the art

allows you to successfully cope with this task. And since chemical Since the activity of lead is much lower, then the use of lead instead of

sodium will significantly improve safety. Even

the most severe accidents (including sabotage) with the destruction of external

barriers (reactor buildings, vessel lids, etc.) will not lead to

dioactive emissions, requiring the evacuation of the population and

alienation of land.

Fusion reactor

As already mentioned, nuclear energy can be obtained by organizing

fission chain reaction in a material containing 235 U or 239 Pu. Od-

but soon after the creation of the first nuclear reactor and the first nuclear

noise bomb, an alternative was found. It turns out if

take hydrogen isotopes – deuterium (D) and tritium (T), place them in

one chamber and heat this mixture to an enormous temperature (about a hundred

million degrees Celsius), then a nuclear fusion reaction will begin .

Deuterium and tritium merge to form a helium nucleus and release

even more energy is consumed per unit mass of fuel than when

research institutes of uranium or plutonium:

H + H → He + n + 17.6 MeV

The scientists were faced with the question of how to make the installation, work

at such gigantic temperatures, because the incandescent plasma

can not only melt, but simply evaporate any, even the most

refractory material. The way to solve this problem was found with

vet scientists – A.D.Sakharov (1921-1989) and I.E.Tamm (1895-

1971). The essence of the solution was as follows: from conductive cables

carcasses form a toroidal (i.e. annular) chamber and fill

its a mixture of deuterium and tritium. The current passed through the coils creates

toroidal magnetic field. Using an inductor placed in

the center of the ring, form a vortex electric field, which

It causes the flow of current and the ignition of the plasma in the toroidal chamber.

This current, firstly, heats the plasma, and secondly, it also creates a mag-

field (called poloidal ). It turns out a system in which

a swarm of helical magnetic lines literally envelop the plasma, holding

her inside the chamber. To control the plasma ring, the system includes

also poloidal turns (see fig. 4.25).

For the first time, this principle was implemented in 1968 at an installation

ke T-3, built in Novosibirsk. It is called “tokamak” : TO-

S. Slavyanov.Spheroidal satellites measure with MA gnitnymi By Coils (see. Fig. 4.25). After

the successful launch of the T-3 in the world began a real boom: after all, the tokamak –

the key to the energy of the future, the prototype of the reactor, in which the energy is

children are not released due to fission of heavy uranium or plutonium nuclei,

and with thermonuclear fusion of deuterium and tritium.

Figure 4.25 – Tokamak device

The invention of Soviet scientists is the basis for international

the first experimental thermonuclear reactor project (ITER –

International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) currently under construction

hour in France (see fig. 4.26).

Figure 4.26 – ITER device

It is believed that ITER will launch a new era – the era of thermonuclear

power plants. If it is possible to solve the existing problems and develop

cheap enough blocks (according to scientists, this will be possible

by 2075-2080), then humanity will receive a truly inexhaustible

fusion energy source, since fusion reactors operate

on hydrogen isotopes that can be obtained from water – at very

their small consumption. The fusion reactor is safer

compared to a uranium-fueled nuclear reactor, practically

does not produce radioactive waste and is not of interest to

terrorists. Estimates show that even the most serious radiation

on-site accidents at such a facility will not lead to the release of radioactive

isotopes into the environment and the need to evacuate the population.

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