Nuclear power plant with VVER reactor

So, it turned out that the channel uranium-graphite reactor is not

suitable for use on submarines and surface ships. And with

pressurized water reactor, the situation is exactly the opposite: being

originally created for ships, it is still active

It is also actively operated on land.

In accordance with the new goals, the reactor has become larger and more powerful,

but the principle of operation remained unchanged. He was assigned the name

VVER is a pressurized water-cooled power reactor. Developer

VVER – Experimental Design Bureau “Gidropress”. First ground

ny installation with a VVER-210 reactor was launched in 1964 at the New

Vovoronezh NPP. The number “210”, as well as for RBMK-1000, reflects its

electrical power in megawatts. Installations with VVER were recognized

are promising, therefore, soon at the same Novovoronezh NPP

the VVER-365 reactor was launched, and then the VVER-440. But 440 megawatts

also did not become the power limit. On May 30, 1980, the reactor was launched

torus VVER-1000.

VVER-1000 became, along with RBMK-1000, one of the flagships of the

sky, and then Russian nuclear power, this project determined

VVER reactors generate about 50% of all “nuclear” electricity

Troenergy price Russia. Let’s consider in more detail how the energy

block with VVER. The main part of the VVER reactor – the core –

on, by analogy with ship reactors, into thick-walled steel

case. Fuel cassettes with nuclear fuel are not inserted here.

they are located in separate channels, as in the RBMK reactor, but stand close to

to each other, like a hexagonal honeycomb in a bee hive (see fig.

4.17, 4.18).

Figure 4.17 – Fuel assembly (FA) of a type reactor


Figure 4.18 – Layout of fuel assemblies in the core of a type reactor


Water enters the reactor vessel, passes through the core,

heats up, but does not boil, as in RBMK. Heated water from the reactor

falls into the steam generator. Passing through pipes, this water ( water of the first con-

round) through a metal wall gives off heat to the water of the second circuit,

after which it is again pumped into the reactor. The water of the second circuit is converted

is fed into steam, which is fed to a steam turbine. How is the further

the process is described above: steam rotates the turbine shaft, the turbine shaft

rotates the rotor of the generator, and the generation of electricity occurs ck current. The steam leaving the turbine is cooled, as a result it

turns into water again. This water passes through the auxiliary

equipment and fed to the steam generator to turn back into

steam, – this is how the second circuit closes. Diagram of a power unit with a reactor

type VVER is shown in Fig. 4.19.

Figure 4.19 – Diagram of a power unit with a VVER reactor

Unlike RBMK, water does not boil in the primary circuit of a VVER. This is done

lano for reasons of radiation safety, since water

the first circuit is radioactive. And in the second circuit circulates non-

radioactive water (with chemical additives), from which it forms

Xia non-radioactive steam. This is the idea – a double-circuit

the scheme allows you to start up the turbine with ordinary, non-radioactive steam.

In order to prevent the primary circuit water from boiling, it supports

live a pressure of about 160 atmospheres (similar pressure exerts

a column of water 1600 meters high). Development plans for domestic

nuclear power engineering for the next period is based precisely on

VVER reactors. New VVER-1200 units (AES-2006 design) will

they can have an even higher electrical power (1170 MW), since

it is planned to increase the temperature of the primary circuit water, which will lead

to an increase in temperature and pressure of steam going to the turbine.

The AES-2006 project combines the results of dozens of scientific

research and development work. New installation

has safety systems that allow dose limitationexposure of personnel and release of radioactive substances into the environment

environment in conditions of abnormal operation, as well as

accidents. The installation is resistant to external sources of danger, including

including plane crashes and earthquakes.

Figure 4.20 – The first circuit of a nuclear power plant with

reactor VVER-1200

Figure 4.21 – Containment (containment) of nuclear power

installation with a VVER-1200 reactor

The fuel in the new reactor will be UO 2 , possibly

uranium-gadolinium fuel UO 2 -Gd 2 O 3 (gadolinium Gd is a a neutron absorber). By improving the design of fuel rods

managed to increase the amount of fuel loaded into the reactor.

Figure 4.22 – VVER-1200 Reactor Pressure Vessel and Fuel Assembly


AES-2006 design meets a high level of safety

required worldwide for future stations. Thanks to the efforts

national engineers, in the new NPP-2006 project they managed

achieve an unprecedented level of safety: for example, the likelihood of

the desired core damage is about 10 -6 per reactor

per year – this means that a severe accident can occur once in

a million years. For comparison, in the UK, the probability of getting into

RTA with traumatic or fatal outcome is 6 · 10 -3 per

car per year (it should be taken into account that nuclear reactors

there are much (!) less cars in the world).

Figure 4.23 – General view of two power units with VVER-1200 reactors

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