Renewable energy sources in world are going to reduce day by day or going to not usable them in future and future generation is going to run out of energy .since our generation is going to use their share of the Energy Sources in world
Energy sources used faster than can be reproduced energy sources.
As example : Coal – Oil – Natural Gas
Renewable Energy Sources in world
Energy sources which are continuously present as a feature of the environment (solar energy), or is continually reproduced the energy. Also Some forms are referred to as perpetual energy.
What percent of fossil fuels are used?
•Fossil fuels supply 90% of world’s commercial energy.
- Oil 40%
- Coal 24%
- Natural Gas 25%
The difference between Resources & Reserves
- Resource is the Naturally occurring substance of use to humans that can potentially be extracted using current technology.
- Reserve is the Amount of a known deposit that can be economically extracted using current technology, under certain economic conditions. Also Reserve levels change as technology advances and new discoveries are made, and profit margins change.
How is coal formed?
Also Plant material began collecting underwater, initiating decay, forming a spongy mass of organic material (peat). Due to geological changes the some of these swamps were covered by seas and covered with sediment. Pressure & heat over time transforms peat into coal with the time.
Types of extraction of Coal
There are Two main extraction methods:
Due to Surface Mining (Strip Mining) Removing overburden on top of a vein. Efficient but destructive.
Due to Underground Mining Minimises surface disturbance, but costly and dangerous. Black Lung Disease
Problems with Coal
- Bulky due to causes some transport problems.
- Black Lung Diseas due toMining creates dust pollution.
- Mining accidents due to collapse of tunnels, malfunctioning machinery
- Ecosystem damage/reclamation efforts
- Burning releases pollutants (C and S).
- Material Millions of tons released into atmosphere annually. Also Acid Rain: Sulfur leads to acid mine drainage and acid deposition. Global warming: Increased carbon dioxide
Coal Use Issues
Also Coal is most abundant fossil fuel.
At first Primarily used for generating electricity. Also Three Categories: Lignite §High moisture content Least desirable. Bituminous §Most abundant – Most widely used. Also Anthracite §Highest energy content Hard to obtain.
Oil and Natural Gas
Oil and Natural Gas are accumulations of dead marine organisms bottom of the ocean floor were covered by sediments. Muddy rock gradually formed rock (shale) containing dispersed oil.This is how the oil pools began to form. Natural gas is often formed in oil. Organic substances became lighter, hydrocarbons more volatile than in oil.
– oil rig drilling –Only removes 1/3 of a deposit.
–Force water or gas into wells. With rising oil prices, more expensive and aggressive secondary recovery methods should be used.
Oil Use Issues
–Because oil comes from the soil, it is not in a suitable form for use and needs to be refined. vMultiple products can be made from a single barrel of crude oil.
–Accidental contamination only accounts for about 1/3 of the shipment’s oil contamination. 60% comes from routine shipping processes.
Advantages of oil use
•More concentrated than coal, it burns cleaner and can be easily transported through pipes.
–Ideal for automobile use.
–Difficult to extract.
–Causes less environmental damage than coal mining.
Natural Gas Use
- Drilling requirements similar to oil.
- Difficult to transport: burned in oil fields.
- As demand increases, new transportation methods will be developed and implemented. Liquefaction at 126o F v(1/600 volume of gas)
- Least environmentally damaging fossil fuel. Almost no air pollution.
- Use is increasing (45% from 1985-2003).
Renewable Sources of Energy
Alternative energy sources currently account for almost 10% of the world’s total energy. See suggested that by 2050 these sources could cover half of the world’s energy needs.
- Hydro power
- Wind Turbines
- Solar Cells
- Biomass Fuels
- Hydrogen Fuel
Hydroelectric power is created when the flowing water is collected and converted into electricity.
–The most common method is to dam a river and store water in a reservoir. Pump Storage Systems: Use two tanks that are separated by a significant height difference.
Currently supplies 15% of world’s electricity.
–China possesses 10% of world’s potential.
The construction of reservoirs causes considerable ecological and social damage.
- Loss of farmland.
- Community relocation.
- Reduction of nutrient-rich silt leading to loss of wetlands. Three Gorges Dam on Yangtze River
Environmental Effects of Hydroelectric
- Flooding of vast areas of land behind dams.
- Prevention of fish migrations.
- Trapping of silt.
- Stops flow of nutrients downstream.
- Fills in reservoir.
- Mercury Accumulation
- Decaying vegetation produces greenhouse gases.
Tidal Power – Renewable energy sources
The daily rise and fall of sea level in relation to the coasts (tides) is the result of gravitational forces and the revolution of the earth. When water flows from a higher level to a lower level, it can be used to rotate a power generating turbine. Since the tidal changes are greatest near the poles and are accentuated in narrow bays and estuaries, suitable locations are limited.
Geothermal Energy Sources in world
In some areas, the molten material is close enough to the surface to heat the groundwater and form steam, drilled and collected.
- Also Only practical in limited areas.
- In addition California produces 40% of world’s geothermal electricity.
- Also Can cause unpleasant odors and high mineral content leads to high maintenance. Corroded pipes and equipment.
Wind Energy Sources in world
- Also warm air becomes less dense and rises, cooler, denser, air flows in to take its place
- Due to Wind technologies have developed during the last 10 – 15 years and 5MW units are in successful operation now. Larger units are on experimental operations.
- At last Cost is becoming very competitive.
Wind Potential Problems
- At first Steady, dependable wind source is critical. Wide open areas are most desirable.
- Due to Can be hazardous to birds.
- Due to Produce noise and visual pollution.
- At last Vibrations can cause structural damage.
Solar Energy Sources in world – Renewable energy sources
Three Major Use Categories – Renewable energy sources
- Due to Sun’s energy is convert directly to heat and use at collection site.
- Due to Drying
- Due to Sun’s energy convert into heat, but transport elsewhere to be used.
- Due to Domestic Water Heating
- Due to Solar energy is transform into electrical energy.
- Due to Photo voltaic, Solar Thermal
Biomass Conversion of Energy
- Biomass is still the predominant form of energy use people in less-developed countries.
- Also Account for 14% of world energy use.
Three Distinct Sources:
- At First Municipal and Industrial Wastes
- Due to Agricultural Crop Residue
- Due to Energy Plantations
•Releasing chemical energy stored in biomass.
- Due to Burned directly for heat.
- Cause of Burned to produce electricity.
- Due to Converted to alcohol or used to generate methane.
- Due to Costs depends on type of technology used, size of the power plant, and the cost of biomass supply.
Fuel wood Energy
- Also In less-developed countries, fuel wood has been major energy source for centuries.
- Also Fuel wood is primary energy source for nearly half world’s population.
- Due to intense population growth, an estimated 1.3 billion people cannot obtain enough firewood or use it faster than the regeneration rate.
- Due to Source of air pollution and fly ash.
Solid Waste Energy to the world
- Use municipal waste as an energy source.
- Reduces landfill volume. Not economically profitable. Must be sort. Requires large, sustainable volume.
- Produces air pollution. Chlorine-containing organic compounds.
Bio gas in World – Renewable energy sources
- A mixture of Methane & Carbon dioxide
- Calorific value 21.5 MJ/kg ( 60% Methane)
- That of Diesel is 43 MJ/kg
- 1m3 of biogas is equivalent to 0.5 liters of diesel
Hydrogen Economy for the world – Renewable energy sources
Due to Hydrogen is abundant and generates heat and pure water when it reacts with air. Also Hydrogen Fuel Cells Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Self-Sustaining Low Operating Temperature No Pollution §Successor to internal combustion engine.