Renewable Energy

Renewable Energy Systems

Solar Energy – Renewable Energy

Solar renewable Energy is the most easiest energy since 10000 years of use. Also At the surface of the Sun the intensity of the solar radiation is about 6.33×10^7 W/m2 (63MW/m2) and global mean solar power at earth’s surface is 170W/m².

solar power at earth’s surface
solar power at earth’s surface
Solar energy growth
Solar energy growth

Available Solar Energy Calculation

First the Solar Constant is the average extraterrestrial irradiance at the edge of the atmosphere. Isc= 1367 W/m2. Thus, the average irradiance incident on the earth’s surface (without the effects of the atmosphere) is 684 W/m2

Available solar energy
Available solar energy

Solar Maps

Insolationis a measure of solar radiation energy received on a given surface area in each time.

Concept of Solar Resource Map 

Peak Sun Hours (PSH)

Solar maps
Solar maps

Solar map is providing monthly average daily total solar resource information on grid cells. Resource ready to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel and oriented due to south at an angle from horizontal to equal to the latitude of the collector location are represent Insulation value.

Solar Power Technologies

  • Solar Photo Voltaic (PV)
  • Concentrated Solar Power (CSP)_ Thermal

Solar Cells are use for various type of applications

  • General electric power applications
  • Cars, ships, airplanes (soon) etc.
  • Toys, watches, calculators
  • Electric fences & protection systems
  • Remote lighting systems
  • Water pumping / Water treatment
  • Emergency power
  • Portable power supplies
  • Satellites

Wind Power – Renewable Energy

Typical 600 kW wind turbine has rotor diameter of 43- 44 m , i.e.  a rotor area of some 1,500 square meters. Rotor area of wind turbine determines how much energy a wind turbine can harvest from the wind. Since the rotor area of wind turbine increases with the square of the rotor diameter, a turbine which is twice as large will receive 22 = 2 x 2 = four times as much energy.  we decide good location by considered for wind energy, an area needs to have average annual wind speeds of at least 12  miles per hour.

Energy of Geothermal

Geothermal Energy
Geothermal Energy
Energy Geothermal 
Geothermal Energy

Biomass Power 

  • Biomass is one of the major world fuel sources, especially in the third world, where it provides 40% of the energy requirements.
  • At present due to biomass co firing in modern coal power plants with 
  • Biomass combustions are carbon free processes because resulting CO2 are previously capture by the plants being combust. 
  • At present due to biomass co‐firing in modern coal power plants with efficiencies up to 45% is the most cost‐effective biomass use for power generation. 
  • Due to feedstock availability issues, dedicate biomass plants for combined heat & power (CHP), are typically of smaller size and lower electrical efficiency compare to coal plants (30%‐34% using dry biomass, and around 22% for municipal solid waste). 
  • Biomass integrate gasification in gas turbine plant (BIG/GT) is not yet at commercial state, but integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC) using black liquor (a by‐product from the pulp & paper industry) are already in use in this type
  • Anaerobic digestion to produce bio gases are expanding in small, off‐grid applications. Bio refineries may open the door to combined, cost‐effective production of bio‐chemicals, electricity and bio fuels.
  • Agricultural,Animal manure,wood wastes from forestry and industry, residues from food and paper industries, municipal green wastes, sewage sludge are the Biomass resource.
  • Organic wastes & residues have been the major biomass source so far we have but energy crops are gaining importance and market share. With replanting, biomass combustion is a carbon‐neutral process as theCO2 emit has previously been absorb by the plants from the atmosphere.  Residues, wastes, bagasse are primarily use for heat & power generation.
  • Also Sugar, starch and oil crops are primarily use for fuel production.

Carbon Neutral Biomass

Carbon Cycle
Carbon Cycle

Biogas – Renewable Energy

  • A mixture of Methane & Carbon dioxide
  • Calorific value 21.5 MJ/kg (60% Methane)
  • 1m3 of biogas is equivalent to 0.5 liters of diesel (approximately)
  • From 1000 Tons of organic waste 36000 m3 due to  Biogas can be produced.

Biogas Production

Bio gas production
Bio gas production

Renewable Energy due to Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)

  • Fully Mixed up
  • High Organic Content
  • Smelly/Rotten

Renewable Energy-Tidal Energy

In addition of Renewable Energy of Tidal electricity is the end result of the interplay of the gravitational pull of the moon and, to a lesser extent, the sun, on the seas. Tidal strength historically entails erecting a dam throughout the opening to a tidal basin. The dam consists of a sluice that is open to permit the tide to drift into the basin; the sluice is then close, and as the sea stage drops the ensuing head can be use for electricity generation.

Wave Energy – Renewable Energy

Firstly Ocean waves are generate through wind passing over stretches of water . Also whole energy of waves breaking on the world’s coastlines is estimated at two the worlds coastlines is estimate at two to three million megawatts. Also In favorable locations, wave electricity density can common sixty five megawatts per mile of coastline. Ocean waves are generate with the aid of wind passing over stretches of water. But the complete strength of waves breaking on the world’s coastlines is estimate at two to three worlds coastlines is estimated at two to three million megawatts. In addition In favorable locations, wave electricity density can common sixty five megawatts per mile of coastline.

Wave Energy Potential
Wave Energy Potential

Renewable Energy – OTEC

Ocean thermal strength conversion, strength science that converts photo voltaic radiation to electric powered power due to OTEC structures use the ocean’s herbal thermal gradient (the truth that the ocean’s layers of water have unique temperatures) to pressure a power-producing cycle. Also If the temperature between the heat floor water and the bloodless deep water differs by way of about 20°C (36°F) the bloodless deep water differs by way of about 20 C (36 F), an OTEC device can produce a considerable quantity of power. The oceans are therefore a good sized renewable resource, with the workable to assist us produce billions of watts of electric powered power. In addition Each day, the oceans soak up ample warmness from the solar to equal the thermal power contained in 250 billion barrels of oil.

Order  of  Magnitude   of Energy  Resources
Order  of  Magnitude   of Energy  Resources

Reference

Reference

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