History of science technics and energy

HISTORY OF SCIENCE,TECHNICS and ENERGY

History of science technics and energy with suitable examples and sketches are discuss here. History of science technics and energy is needed to read

History – History of science technics and energy

History is a study, a totality of facts, events related to the past life of mankind, some branch of science or technology, object, culture, etc. It is a memory of the past, about outstanding events, people. The concepts of “history”, “historical fact” include not only past events, but also that which relates to a person, to his inner world. History educates and shapes man; she is a great teacher of man and society.

The purpose of each generation of people is to:

– master what is left to them by past generations;

– to bring new things through his own work – to create, build, research, improve;

– pass it all on to the next generation.

Communicating knowledge in the form in which it was first obtained, history shows the methods of work and the course of creative thought, teaches courage and initiative, fosters a sense of newness and encourages action. It is legitimate to say that history is the science of the future. If we want to manage our future and direct it to the desired goals, then one of the main means for this is to study history – to reveal how our society, or science and technology, has developed and developed, and how to use it in our time useful history lessons.

The study of the historical past is of practical importance, since its final conclusions bring us close to the practical needs of the current moment.

History is inexhaustible and endless. She continues now. We are contemporaries and witnesses of many inventions, discoveries that make and still will make many changes in the material, social, cultural and spiritual life of mankind, in world knowledge – this is radio, television, nuclear and thermonuclear energy, computer technology, nanotechnology, etc. . P.

The development of electrical engineering and the electric power industry – our fields of research with you – is connected with the work of so many people: geniuses, inventors, curious people, scientists – who are not indifferent, thinking, hardworking, morally rich.

Studying the history of the electric power industry is a kind of communication, it touches on the incentive and motivational aspects of the individual, economic needs. In this case, the effect of presence arises, which allows one to be as an accomplice in the events under consideration.

Relying on the spiritual and moral experience of centuries, imbued with a historical feeling, a person gradually develops a personal responsibility in himself for everything that has happened and is happening in the world. It strengthens the sense of moral duty, which is the core of a true person.

The history of science and technology inspires confidence in the surmountability of difficulties, in the unlimited possibilities of man.

The science

Science at each moment in time is a result – a set of knowledge about nature, society, thinking, accumulated in the course of socio-historical life of people.

The purpose of science is to reveal the objective laws of phenomena, to give them an explanation.

The tasks of science are to find and investigate objective laws hidden from a superficial glance, randomly and randomly, and to acquire knowledge of these laws of people for their practical activities.

In the history of mankind there are four stages of cognition of nature.

The first stage begins from ancient times (Archimedes, Thales of Miletus, etc.) and ends around the XV century. It forms a syncretic, that is, an undetailed view of the environment; but already in the XIII-XIV centuries ideas and conjectures were born, which became the beginning of the formation of the natural sciences.

The second stage – XV-XVI centuries – It is called analytical, since in this period thinking begins to focus on the separation of concepts and the allocation of particulars, which led to the emergence and development of sciences: astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and others.

The third stage – XVII-XX centuries; It is called synthetic. At this time, there is a gradual reconstruction of a holistic picture of nature on the basis of previously accumulated experience.

The fourth stage – the end of the XX century., The beginning of the XXI century. Here the integral-differential approach to the cognition of nature begins to take shape, that is, a unified science of nature is considered. The Universe, Life, Reason – are treated as a single, but very multifaceted object of natural science.

The forecast for the future – the leading role in the further cognition of nature belongs to the synthesis of knowledge, the integration of sciences, in the center of which man will be.

Science is a multidimensional, multifaceted and complex phenomenon. Science is also the experimental means necessary for the study of phenomena — these include instruments and installations with which these phenomena are recorded and reproduced; these are the methods by which subjects of research are distinguished and cognized; these are people engaged in scientific research; these are knowledge systems recorded using texts, etc.

The general basis of these phenomena is the technology of human activity for the production of knowledge, that is, science is a certain human activity that is aimed at obtaining knowledge.

The development of science and technology always takes place in specific historical and cultural conditions, determined primarily by the productive forces of society, the mode of production. The achievements of science and technological progress at the same time contribute to the evolution of society, generating and determining the level of productive forces.

First, science took a lot from the masters – engineers of the Renaissance, then, in the XIX-XX centuries. engineering activities began to be built in accordance with science. The specialization and professionalization of science and technology led to the technicalization of science and the humanization of technology.

The whole history of mankind shows that science is developing under the influence of practical needs and, first of all, the needs of production. However, the needs of production do not determine the whole complex dynamics of the formation of knowledge, the creation of new ideas, theories, and conclusions. It has its own laws. For example, the history of the development of the natural sciences provides many examples of scientific discoveries that were not directly generated by the demands of life:

• discovery of electricity,

• diffraction,

• magnetism,

• polarization,

• periodic system of elements and much more.

Science fiction writers, artists, and writers are sometimes able to invade the unknown future and make out the contours of the ages ahead. Here are some examples.

Englishman Roger Bacon in the 13th century (circa 1240s) he studied languages, mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry and made numerous important discoveries. He wrote about chariots moving with incredible speed without the help of animals, about flying cars, about the properties of concave and convex glasses for the eyes (glasses), he created the theory of a telescope and much more. One of the greatest minds of mankind!

In the sixteenth century (1560s), Francis Bacon (Roger’s namesake) created one of the most brilliant creations of the human mind – the work “New Atlantis”, in which he outlined a project for the state organization of science, described the fundamentals of the logic of updating science, He pointed out the possibility of the beneficial use of the phenomena observed in nature, predicted the creation of submarines, airplanes, cinema, radio, television, bionics, a thermonuclear reactor, and much more.

In the novel of the Russian science fiction writer N. Shelonsky “In the World of the Future” (1892), we are talking about transformations of elements, synthetic materials, the transmission of thoughts at a distance, antigravity, and much more.

A. Tolstoy in his work “Engineer Hyperboloid Garin” described in detail the laser project.

The story of I. Efremov “Shadows of the Past” (1945) prompted the scientist Yu. Denisyuk to discover volume holography.

Of the 86 predictions of science fiction writer G. Wells, more than 30 came true, while science fiction writers Jules Verne and A. Belyaev came true with 90% of the predictions.

In connection with the foregoing, we consider it appropriate to quote a wise proverb: “The new is the long-forgotten old.” It is important for every generation to remember and show interest and respect for the labors and fantasies of people who lived before us.

Next, we consider some laws of the development of science.

First law. It is called the law of relative independence of the development of science.

Such relative independence includes the internal logic of development, the need for systematization of knowledge, the struggle of opinions, the mutual influence of sciences, interaction with different forms of public consciousness, continuity of ideas, etc. – that is, all those factors from which, if not consider the needs of production (or household), depends on the development of science.

Second law. The following law reflects such phenomena as criticism and the struggle of opinions in science. That is, the development of science is based on the struggle of new and old ideas. Without taking into account the emotional discussions of new knowledge with the old, without a correct understanding of traditions in science, it is impossible to understand the progress of science as a whole.

The history of science is the history of the change of various theories and their struggle. Incompleteness, imperfection of knowledge inevitably leads to the fact that the same series of observed facts receives different explanations from different scientists, they see these facts as if from different angles. It depends on the difference of views, the way of thinking, talent, etc. However, over time, science inevitably comes to a single view on them.

Third law. This law expresses the interaction of sciences and is now especially important for understanding the ongoing processes of scientific and technological progress.

Science is a whole. The existing division of science into separate areas is due to the difference in the nature of things and the laws to which these things are subject in the process of movement and development. Different fields of science are developing, interacting with each other in different ways:

• through the use of knowledge gained by other sciences;

• through the use of methods for studying other sciences;

• through technology and production;

• through the study of the general properties of various types of matter. The fourth law characterizes the process of mathematization of practical

distinctly all scientific disciplines. Mathematics now penetrates even such fields of knowledge as history, linguistics, biology, etc. Ancient Mayan manuscripts are decrypted with the help of computers, etc. In many branches of physics, astronomy, mathematics is an indispensable apparatus.

The fifth law relates to the differentiation and integration of sciences, which are invariably present in the development of modern natural science.

The process of differentiation is the degeneration of various branches of science into independent scientific disciplines. At the same time, this process is associated with an integration process connecting different branches of natural science, since there is a rapid development of the border sciences: genetic engineering, molecular geology, biogeochemistry, engineering psychology, etc.

The sixth law is continuity in science. Science is the product of many generations. Its objective content is not eliminated along with the liquidation of the social system, but develops and accumulates throughout the history of mankind. Use and development of knowledge accumulated by previous generations, that is, continuity, is the objective law of the development of science. No development is simply impossible without it!

The seventh law, discovered by F. Engels – the accelerated development of science – is valid now. The achievements of the 19th century are many times greater than the achievements of the 18th century, and the achievements of the 20th century (even the second half) are superior to the achievements of previous times.

The eighth law indicates the inevitability of scientific revolutions. An analysis of the history of the development of natural science shows that it developed very unevenly. The periods of relative stability, the gradual accumulation of knowledge inevitably in the course of time were replaced by shorter periods of revolutions, when there is a radical breakdown of theoretical ideas that were previously considered unshakable.

The Ninth Law describes the strengthening of the connection between science and production, which ultimately led to the understanding of science as one of the most important elements of productive forces. As a result, anthropogenic civilization arose, which is replaced by anthropogenic civilization or post-industrial society.

Science is the creation of life. From the environment of life, the scientific thought of man takes the material given in the form of scientific truth. Science is a manifestation of action in human society of the aggregate human thought.

Technics – History of science technics and energy

Technique – (gr. – art, craft, craftsmanship). The development of technology, including energy and electric power, is a powerful force that affects people’s living standards, changes the nature of society, its social structure – primitive, slave-owning, feudal, serfdom, capitalist, socialist and etc. The development of technology is the cause of social change and guides social development.

Technology at the end of the XIX-XX centuries was in the focus of studying various disciplines, both technical and natural, as well as social.

Technique can be attributed to the sphere of material culture.

With her devices, devices, she strengthened our hearing,

ny, strength and dexterity; it reduces distance and time, increases labor productivity. Facilitating the satisfaction of needs, it thereby creates new needs.

Technology has given mankind space and time, matter and power, and itself serves as a force that irresistibly drives forward progress.

But! Material culture is closely connected in man with spiritual culture by the most inextricable bonds, and therefore technology has an intangible aspect in the form of a body of knowledge.

Science and technology are built on facts and experience. But a simple collection of facts, experiments, and observations, not organized by creative thought, just as little deserves the name of science and engineering as a pile of bricks deserves the name of a house.

Technique has its own objective laws of structure and development (like science). In connection with the inevitable development and complication of the world of technology, accelerating scientific and technological progress, knowledge about technology itself as a whole is becoming increasingly relevant.

– common ideas about the structure and development of a wide variety of machines, instruments, apparatuses. Therefore, the expansion of the general technical and fundamental training of engineers is required.

The study and formulation of objective laws of the structure and development of technology by analogy with the laws of nature is one of the main and poorly developed areas of general technical fundamentalization of engineering education.

Ak. I.F. Obraztsov. The formation of a unified system of scientific knowledge introduces the concept of “technosphere” into the field of technology (by analogy with the biosphere, noosphere, atmosphere, etc.). This concept captures some integral parameters of natural processes occurring in engineering and technology.

The technosphere can be defined as a system of relations between man and nature, in which technology acts as a mediator and source of the formation of a certain type of interaction – between technology – as an artificial environment, and nature – as a natural environment.

Technique –

1) it is a combination of means of labor, tools, with which they create something;

2) these are machines, mechanical tools, all possible devices;

3) it is a combination of knowledge, means, methods used in any business.

The technique can be interpreted:

– as a set of technical devices – from individual simple tools to complex technical systems;

– as a combination of various types of technical activities for the creation of these devices and systems;

– as a combination of technical knowledge, scientific and theoretical, as well as systems engineering.

The development of technical knowledge must be considered in conjunction with the progress of scientific knowledge. However, one should take into account the relative independence of the development of technical knowledge and its conditionality by the progress of natural science and technology.

Four stages can be distinguished in the development of technical knowledge.

I stage. Pre-scientific (from the primitive communal system and ending with the Renaissance), when technical knowledge existed as an empirical description of the means of labor and methods of their application.

II stage. The beginning of the use of scientific knowledge (from the second half of the 15th century to the beginning of the 19th century), when scientific knowledge is used to solve practical problems. At this time, the formation of natural science continues.

III stage. Covers the period from the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century. This is the so-called classical period in the history of natural sciences and technical sciences, when stable relationships are formed between them.

Stage IV – from the middle of the XX century to the beginning of the XXI century. During this period, the integration of technical and scientific knowledge takes place, to which socio-humanitarian knowledge begins to connect. This occurs as a result of the establishment of automated production, the development of informatics, astronautics, new technologies – information, biotechnology, nanotechnology, etc. It appears, by analogy with the biosphere and noosphere, the field of technology is the technology sphere.

The technosphere is a system of relations:

– between man and nature;

– between technology and nature;

– between man and technology;

– techniques and foundations of civilization and culture.

There is an opinion that the technosphere now occupies not only a priority place, but also enslaves a person, subordinating him to the laws of his evolution.

It must be borne in mind that human society has not yet learned to adequately use the achievements of technological progress, since psychological and cultural processes are slower than scientific and technological ones.

Technology – History of science technics and energy

Technology (techne – art, skill, ability, and logos – word, knowledge) – a set of techniques and methods for obtaining, processing or processing of raw materials, materials, semi-finished products or products, as well as information carried out in various industries, construction , production, education, etc. Also, technology is called a scientific discipline that develops techniques for any type of human activity.

The development of technological knowledge must be studied in unity with the progress of natural science knowledge.

Engineer – History of science technics and energy

The word “engineer” has come into world use since the 19th century. This word began to be called a person engaged in the construction of any structure, device, bridge, machine, fixture, etc. as a leader. In the old days in England such a man was called a captain; in France – the master; in Germany – the master (master), and in Russia – the meaning (meaning).

Meaning was obliged to interpret the task before him from all sides, relying not only on his own experience, but also on the experience accumulated by his predecessors, on his mind, ingenuity, dream, fantasy.

Thus, the Russian name “meaning” inherently anticipated the understanding of the role of a leader in solving technical problems, which was established in a much later era – in the 19th century – and embodied in the concept of “engineer”.

Excavations of ancient cities and fortresses give a lot of evidence of the existence of engineering (business of meaning) in very distant times – XII – XIV centuries. For example, the first floating bridge in the world across the Dnieper near Kiev, mentioned in chronicles in 1115

year, was built under Vladimir Monomakh, and a wooden bridge through the Volga was built under Dmitry Donskoy – in 1380.

Science, technology, art – various areas of human creativity. To some extent, technology stands between science and art, just as an engineer to some extent combines both the artist and the thinker.

Energy, energetics, electric power industry

The material life of mankind is associated with two basic principles – matter and energy. Therefore, all the technical creativity of man at all stages of the development of society was reduced, in essence, to modifications and transformations of both matter and energy. Energy (gr. Energeia – activity) – the ability of bodies (beings) to do work. This action, a general quantitative measure of various forms of motion of matter. Energy binds all phenomena together nature.

Energy, energy science is the science of the laws of processes and phenomena directly or indirectly associated with the receipt, transformation, transmission, distribution and use of various types of energy.

The power industry as a whole is regarded as a complex technical entity that closely interacts with the fuel economy and the main sectors of the mining and processing industries, transport, agriculture, etc.

Electric energy is secondary energy and does not replace primary, for example, thermal, hydraulic, wind, thermonuclear, solar, tidal, nuclear, but at the same time it stimulates their development.

Electricity is a leading industry. The use of electricity, the use of electric energy is one of the greatest discoveries and achievements of the 19th century. This was preceded by the efforts of many, many people. Now electric energy is the most convenient form of energy.

The power system of the electric power industry is a set of power plants, electric and heat networks, interconnected and connected by a common regime in the continuous process of production, conversion and distribution of electric energy and heat under the general control of this mode.

Energy is a determining factor for both the economy and the environment. The economic potential of the state and the well-being of people depend on it. It also has the strongest impact on the environment, ecosystems and the biosphere as a whole.

Our planet is filled with energies that interact with it, with a person on its surface, with the Cosmos. Everything is energy! Spirit is energy, matter is energy, the smallest atom is energy.

Evolution brings high energies closer to the Planet, bearing both creative and destructive potentials. Which one is being realized depends on humanity itself, on its energetic, spiritual and moral potential

Scientific and technical progress – History of science technics and energy

Progress – moving forward to a more perfect state; change for the better.

But does it always happen that way ?!

At present – the beginning of the 21st century – general, and especially scientific and technical progress, has reached such a high level that, for example, energy, electric power and industry have a very significant and far from positive impact on the biosphere and the environment due to the commensurability of capacities in man-made systems and global processes in nature.

In his last article, one of the creators of the hydrogen bomb in Russia, Academician Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov wrote:

Scientific and technological progress will not bring happiness if it is not complemented by an extremely deep positive change in the social, moral and cultural life of mankind.

The inner spiritual life of people, the internal impulses of their activity, are the most difficult to predict, and this ultimately depends on the death and salvation of mankind.

Despite the conservatism inherent in man, scientific and technological progress cannot be stopped. Its main engine is labor, the desire to make life better. History shows that people do not easily accept new ideas, truths, and that, on the contrary,

they stubbornly reject them, the more these truths go beyond the realms of the senses, habitual, ordinary.

It must be understood and remembered that labor is an inexhaustible source of strength and comfort of a person in any situations.

Self Test Questions – History of science technics and energy

1. What is the significance of knowledge of history (in a specific field)?

2. What are the goals and objectives of science? Her stages of development?

3. Under the influence of what factors does science develop?

4. What are the basic laws of the development of science?

5. What role does technology play in social development?

6. What stages can be distinguished in the development of technology?

7. What is the significance of technology in human activities?

8. What role does electric power play in the life of human society?

History of science technics and energy with suitable examples and sketches are discuss here. History of science technics and energy is needed to read

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