History of science technics and energy

History of science

The History of science with suitable examples and sketches are discuss here advanced. History of science is needed to read as engineer student.


History is a study, a totality of facts, events related to the past life of mankind, some branch of science or technology, object, culture, etc. It is a memory of the past, about outstanding events, people. The concepts of “history”, “historical fact” include not only past events, but also that which relates to a person, to his inner world. History educates and shapes man; she is a great teacher of man and society.

The purpose of each generation of people is to:

– master what is left to them by past generations;

– to bring new things through his own work – to create, build, research, improve;

– pass it all on to the next generation.

Communicating knowledge in the form in which it was first obtained, history shows the methods of work and the course of creative thought, teaches courage and initiative, fosters a sense of newness and encourages action. It is legitimate to say that history is the science of the future. If we want to manage our future and direct it to the desired goals, then one of the main means for this is to study history – to reveal how our society, or science and technology, has developed and developed, and how to use it in our time useful history lessons.

The study of the historical past is of practical importance, since its final conclusions bring us close to the practical needs of the current moment.

History is inexhaustible and endless. She continues now. We are contemporaries and witnesses of many inventions, discoveries that make and still will make many changes in the material, social, cultural and spiritual life of mankind, in world knowledge – this is radio, television, nuclear and thermonuclear energy, computer technology, nanotechnology, etc.

The development of electrical engineering and the electric power industry – our fields of research with you – is connected with the work of so many people: geniuses, inventors, curious people, scientists – who are not indifferent, thinking, hardworking, morally rich.

Studying the history of the electric power industry is a kind of communication, it touches on the incentive and motivational aspects of the individual, economic needs. In this case, the effect of presence arises, which allows one to be as an accomplice in the events under consideration.

Relying on the spiritual and moral experience of centuries, imbued with a historical feeling, a person gradually develops a personal responsibility in himself for everything that has happened and is happening in the world. It strengthens the sense of moral duty, which is the core of a true person.

The history of science and technology inspires confidence in the surmountability of difficulties, in the unlimited possibilities of man.

The science

Science at each moment in time is a result – a set of knowledge about nature, society, thinking, accumulated in the course of socio-historical life of people.

The purpose of science is to reveal the objective laws of phenomena, to give them an explanation.

The tasks of science are to find and investigate objective laws hidden from a superficial glance, randomly and randomly, and to acquire knowledge of these laws of people for their practical activities.

In the history of mankind there are four stages of cognition of nature.

The first stage begins from ancient times (Archimedes, Thales of Miletus, etc.) and ends around the XV century. It forms a syncretic, that is, an undetailed view of the environment; but already in the XIII-XIV centuries ideas and conjectures were born, which became the beginning of the formation of the natural sciences.

The second stage – XV-XVI centuries – It is called analytical, since in this period thinking begins to focus on the separation of concepts and the allocation of particulars, which led to the emergence and development of sciences: astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and others.

The third stage – XVII-XX centuries; It is called synthetic. At this time, there is a gradual reconstruction of a holistic picture of nature on the basis of previously accumulated experience.

The fourth stage – the end of the XX century., The beginning of the XXI century. Here the integral-differential approach to the cognition of nature begins to take shape, that is, a unified science of nature is considered. The Universe, Life, Reason – are treated as a single, but very multifaceted object of natural science.

The forecast for the future – the leading role in the further cognition of nature belongs to the synthesis of knowledge, the integration of sciences, in the center of which man will be.

Science is a multidimensional, multifaceted and complex phenomenon. Science is also the experimental means necessary for the study of phenomena — these include instruments and installations with which these phenomena are recorded and reproduced; these are the methods by which subjects of research are distinguished and cognized; these are people engaged in scientific research; these are knowledge systems recorded using texts, etc.

The general basis of these phenomena is the technology of human activity for the production of knowledge, that is, science is a certain human activity that is aimed at obtaining knowledge.

The development of science and technology always takes place in specific historical and cultural conditions, determined primarily by the productive forces of society, the mode of production. The achievements of science and technological progress at the same time contribute to the evolution of society, generating and determining the level of productive forces.

First, science took a lot from the masters – engineers of the Renaissance, then, in the XIX-XX centuries. engineering activities began to be built in accordance with science. The specialization and professionalization of science and technology led to the technicalization of science and the humanization of technology.

The whole history of mankind shows that science is developing under the influence of practical needs and, first of all, the needs of production. However, the needs of production do not determine the whole complex dynamics of the formation of knowledge, the creation of new ideas, theories, and conclusions. It has its own laws. For example, the history of the development of the natural sciences provides many examples of scientific discoveries that were not directly generated by the demands of life:

• discovery of electricity,

• diffraction,

• magnetism,

• polarization,

• periodic system of elements and much more.

Science fiction writers, artists, and writers are sometimes able to invade the unknown future and make out the contours of the ages ahead. Here are some examples.

Englishman Roger Bacon in the 13th century (circa 1240s) he studied languages, mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry and made numerous important discoveries. He wrote about chariots moving with incredible speed without the help of animals, about flying cars, about the properties of concave and convex glasses for the eyes (glasses), he created the theory of a telescope and much more. One of the greatest minds of mankind!

In the sixteenth century (1560s), Francis Bacon (Roger’s namesake) created one of the most brilliant creations of the human mind – the work “New Atlantis”, in which he outlined a project for the state organization of science, described the fundamentals of the logic of updating science, He pointed out the possibility of the beneficial use of the phenomena observed in nature, predicted the creation of submarines, airplanes, cinema, radio, television, bionics, a thermonuclear reactor, and much more.

In the novel of the Russian science fiction writer N. Shelonsky “In the World of the Future” (1892), we are talking about transformations of elements, synthetic materials, the transmission of thoughts at a distance, antigravity, and much more.

A. Tolstoy in his work “Engineer Hyperboloid Garin” described in detail the laser project.

The story of I. Efremov “Shadows of the Past” (1945) prompted the scientist Yu. Denisyuk to discover volume holography.

Of the 86 predictions of science fiction writer G. Wells, more than 30 came true, while science fiction writers Jules Verne and A. Belyaev came true with 90% of the predictions.

In connection with the foregoing, we consider it appropriate to quote a wise proverb: “The new is the long-forgotten old.” It is important for every generation to remember and show interest and respect for the labors and fantasies of people who lived before us.

Next, we consider some laws of the development of science.

First law. It is called the law of relative independence of the development of science.

Such relative independence includes the internal logic of development, the need for systematization of knowledge, the struggle of opinions, the mutual influence of sciences, interaction with different forms of public consciousness, continuity of ideas, etc. – that is, all those factors from which, if not consider the needs of production (or household), depends on the development of science.

Second law. The following law reflects such phenomena as criticism and the struggle of opinions in science. That is, the development of science is based on the struggle of new and old ideas. Without taking into account the emotional discussions of new knowledge with the old, without a correct understanding of traditions in science, it is impossible to understand the progress of science as a whole.

The history of science is the history of the change of various theories and their struggle. Incompleteness, imperfection of knowledge inevitably leads to the fact that the same series of observed facts receives different explanations from different scientists, they see these facts as if from different angles. It depends on the difference of views, the way of thinking, talent, etc. However, over time, science inevitably comes to a single view on them.

Third law. This law expresses the interaction of sciences and is now especially important for understanding the ongoing processes of scientific and technological progress.

Science is a whole. The existing division of science into separate areas is due to the difference in the nature of things and the laws to which these things are subject in the process of movement and development. Different fields of science are developing, interacting with each other in different ways:

• through the use of knowledge gained by other sciences;

• through the use of methods for studying other sciences;

• through technology and production;

• through the study of the general properties of various types of matter. The fourth law characterizes the process of mathematization of practical

distinctly all scientific disciplines. Mathematics now penetrates even such fields of knowledge as history, linguistics, biology, etc. Ancient Mayan manuscripts are decrypted with the help of computers, etc. In many branches of physics, astronomy, mathematics is an indispensable apparatus.

The fifth law relates to the differentiation and integration of sciences, which are invariably present in the development of modern natural science.

The process of differentiation is the degeneration of various branches of science into independent scientific disciplines. At the same time, this process is associated with an integration process connecting different branches of natural science, since there is a rapid development of the border sciences: genetic engineering, molecular geology, biogeochemistry, engineering psychology, etc.

The sixth law is continuity in science. Science is the product of many generations. Its objective content is not eliminated along with the liquidation of the social system, but develops and accumulates throughout the history of mankind. Use and development of knowledge accumulated by previous generations, that is, continuity, is the objective law of the development of science. No development is simply impossible without it!

The seventh law, discovered by F. Engels – the accelerated development of science – is valid now. The achievements of the 19th century are many times greater than the achievements of the 18th century, and the achievements of the 20th century (even the second half) are superior to the achievements of previous times.

The eighth law indicates the inevitability of scientific revolutions. An analysis of the history of the development of natural science shows that it developed very unevenly. The periods of relative stability, the gradual accumulation of knowledge inevitably in the course of time were replaced by shorter periods of revolutions, when there is a radical breakdown of theoretical ideas that were previously considered unshakable.

The Ninth Law describes the strengthening of the connection between science and production, which ultimately led to the understanding of science as one of the most important elements of productive forces. As a result, anthropogenic civilization arose, which is replaced by anthropogenic civilization or post-industrial society.

Science is the creation of life. From the environment of life, the scientific thought of man takes the material given in the form of scientific truth. Science is a manifestation of action in human society of the aggregate human thought.

The History of science with suitable examples and sketches are discuss here advanced. History of science is needed to read as engineer student.

Reference – History of science

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