The History of Technics with suitable examples and sketches are discuss here advanced. History of Technics is needed to read as engineer student.
Technique – ( art, craft, craftsmanship). The development of technology, including energy and electric power, is a powerful force that affects people’s living standards, changes the nature of society, its social structure – primitive, slave-owning, feudal, serfdom, capitalist, socialist and etc. The development of technology is the cause of social change and guides social development.
Technology at the end of the XIX-XX centuries was in the focus of studying various disciplines, both technical and natural, as well as social.
Technique can be attributed to the sphere of material culture.
With her devices, devices, she strengthened our hearing,
ny, strength and dexterity; it reduces distance and time, increases labor productivity. Facilitating the satisfaction of needs, it thereby creates new needs.
Technology has given mankind space and time, matter and power, and itself serves as a force that irresistibly drives forward progress.
But! Material culture is closely connected in man with spiritual culture by the most inextricable bonds, and therefore technology has an intangible aspect in the form of a body of knowledge.
Science and technology are built on facts and experience. But a simple collection of facts, experiments, and observations, not organized by creative thought, just as little deserves the name of science and engineering as a pile of bricks deserves the name of a house.
Technique has its own objective laws of structure and development (like science). In connection with the inevitable development and complication of the world of technology, accelerating scientific and technological progress, knowledge about technology itself as a whole is becoming increasingly relevant.
– common ideas about the structure and development of a wide variety of machines, instruments, apparatuses. Therefore, the expansion of the general technical and fundamental training of engineers is required.
The study and formulation of objective laws of the structure and development of technology by analogy with the laws of nature is one of the main and poorly developed areas of general technical fundamentalization of engineering education.
Ak. I.F. Obraztsov. The formation of a unified system of scientific knowledge introduces the concept of “technosphere” into the field of technology (by analogy with the biosphere, noosphere, atmosphere, etc.). This concept captures some integral parameters of natural processes occurring in engineering and technology.
The technosphere can be defined as a system of relations between man and nature, in which technology acts as a mediator and source of the formation of a certain type of interaction – between technology – as an artificial environment, and nature – as a natural environment.
1) it is a combination of means of labor, tools, with which they create something;
2) these are machines, mechanical tools, all possible devices;
3) it is a combination of knowledge, means, methods used in any business.
The technique can be interpreted:
– as a set of technical devices – from individual simple tools to complex technical systems;
– as a combination of various types of technical activities for the creation of these devices and systems;
– as a combination of technical knowledge, scientific and theoretical, as well as systems engineering.
The development of technical knowledge must be considered in conjunction with the progress of scientific knowledge. However, one should take into account the relative independence of the development of technical knowledge and its conditionality by the progress of natural science and technology.
Four stages can be distinguished in the development of technical knowledge.
I stage. Pre-scientific (from the primitive communal system and ending with the Renaissance), when technical knowledge existed as an empirical description of the means of labor and methods of their application.
II stage. The beginning of the use of scientific knowledge (from the second half of the 15th century to the beginning of the 19th century), when scientific knowledge is used to solve practical problems. At this time, the formation of natural science continues.
III stage. Covers the period from the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century. This is the so-called classical period in the history of natural sciences and technical sciences, when stable relationships are formed between them.
Stage IV – from the middle of the XX century to the beginning of the XXI century. During this period, the integration of technical and scientific knowledge takes place, to which socio-humanitarian knowledge begins to connect. This occurs as a result of the establishment of automated production, the development of informatics, astronautics, new technologies – information, biotechnology, nanotechnology, etc. It appears, by analogy with the biosphere and noosphere, the field of technology is the technology sphere.
The technosphere is a system of relations:
– between man and nature;
– between technology and nature;
– between man and technology;
– techniques and foundations of civilization and culture.
There is an opinion that the technosphere now occupies not only a priority place, but also enslaves a person, subordinating him to the laws of his evolution.
It must be borne in mind that human society has not yet learned to adequately use the achievements of technological progress, since psychological and cultural processes are slower than scientific and technological ones.