The ac to dc converter circuit with suitable examples and sketches are discuss here advanced. ac to dc converter circuit is needed to read.

Semi-controlled converter is a hybrid between uncontrolled and fullycontrolled converters. It is also known as βsemi-converterβ.

Semi-converter offers variable positive DC output voltage only. Regeneration or inverter mode operation is not available

## Single-phase Semi-converter with inductive load

In a semi-converter, thyristor conduction is delayed by angle Ξ± but diode conduction begins at their default points (i.e. zero delay-angle). For continuous load current (which we assumed), at any time, a thyristor from the upper-half and a diode from the lower-half must conduct the load current πΌπ, i.e. last two active devices conduct at any point of time.

By varying πΌ over 0Β° to 180Β°, we can adjust π π ππππ between 8πππ π and 0.

In πΌπ waveform, front-end of current pulse (in each half-cycle) is moved to the right by πΌ but rear-end is fixed. For a given delay angle πΌ, the width of current pulse is π βπΌ .

Note: We assumed continuous load current for all delay angles. In reality, at higher delay-angles, load current becomes discontinuous. Then the input current will be different.

There are some other implementations of the single-phase semi-converter, all offering the same input-output performances.

Standard Implementation

Alternative Implementation β 1

Alternative Implementation β 2

Alternative Implementation β 3

Which implementation we want to select is partly our own preference and partly technical /operational requirements.

Thyristors (also diodes) are available as individual devices or multiple devices. Twin devices are available in common-cathode, common-anode or bridgedleg options. Selection of the converter configuration may depend on the type of available devices.

Technically, common-cathode configuration of standard implementation eases the assembly of two gate drive circuits sharing the cathodes. Threeleg implementation gives the choice between semi-converter and fullconverter during operation by making diode D5 in or out.

Self Attempt:

Draw the output voltage and input current waveforms for the other three configurations of 1-phase semi-converter, and indicate the devices conducting in different intervals of the cycle.

## Single-phase Semi-converter with inductive load (With Source Inductance)

Inductance Ls does not allow current Is to make step changes at T-to-T and D-to-D commutation points. Current changes taking a brief time. During these brief intervals both the incoming and the outgoing devices conduct simultaneously. This is a conduction overlap. Conduction overlap angle for thyristor commutation and diode commutation are different, because they occur at different points of Vs.

π’π = Thyristor conduction overlap angle π’π· = Diode conduction overlap angle Diode conduction overlap does not influence output voltage, because it occurs during π π is zero. However it affects the voltage waveform at the PCC.

Let consider the conduction overlap after triggering π1. During this interval π1,π·2,π3 all conduct simultaneously, short-circuiting the load, as well as the source.

Reduction of volt-radian area (A) from π π due to the conduction overlap,

Reduction in π π ππππ due to conduction overlap,

Similarly, let consider conduction overlap at π·4 taking up conduction. During this interval π·4,π·2,π1 conduct, short circuits the load, as well as the source. Load voltage during this interval is zero, anyway.

## Three-phase Semi-converter with inductive load

Diodes in the lower-half conduct at default forward-bias points. Thyristor conduction is delayed by delay angle Ξ±. It is assumed that load current is approximately constant due to load inductance.

The assumption that load current is continuous and constant is quite valid when the delay angle is not large. For larger delay angles in semiconverters, load current can become discontinuous, in which case the operating waveforms will be somewhat different.

Output voltage, input current and thyristor-1 voltage waveforms

At any point of time, the two previously active devices conduct and pass the corresponding line-voltage to the output.

π π ππππ is variable but positive only for the 0Β° to 180Β° range of Ξ±.

With respect to the case of three-phase diode converter, the input current waveformβs positive half-cycle is shifted to the right by angle Ξ± but the negative halfcycle remains un-shifted.

Mathematically,

Order of harmonics in πΌπ is = 5, 7, 11, 13, β¦..= 6π Β±1 ,π = 1,2,3β¦

From a qualitative view point too, we can deduce input displacement angle. If positive half-cycle only shifts to the right by angle πΌ, the fundamental component will be shifted to the right by angle πΌ 2.

Once π·ππ πΉ is known, πΌπ ,πΉπ’ππ πππ can be found by equating input and output power too.

Operating waveforms of three-phase semi-converter will be different depending on whether πΌ is below or above 60Β°. For example, below 60Β°, π π has 6 ripples per AC cycle but above 60Β°, π π has only 3 ripples per AC cycle. However, the expressions of the π π ππππ , π·ππ πΉOperating waveforms of three-phase semi-converter will be different depending on whether πΌ is below or above 60Β°. For example, below 60Β°, π π has 6 ripples per AC cycle but above 60Β°, π π has only 3 ripples per AC cycle. However, the expressions of the π π ππππ , π·ππ πΉ and (Is,Fund)rms are valid for all values of Ξ±.

Operating waveforms for Ξ± = 60Β°

Operating waveforms for Ξ± >Β 60Β°

## Three-phase Semi-converter with inductive load (With source side inductance)

Each thyristor-to-thyristor commutation involves with a conduction overlap angle π’π, and each diode-to-diode commutation involves with a conduction overlap angle π’π·. Here too, during overlap, the three recently active devices conduct simultaneously and outside overlaps the two recently active devices conduct simultaneously.

Waveforms of output voltage, input current, thyristor-1 voltage and voltage at PCC

Let consider the thyristor-overlap after triggering π1, during which π1,π·6,π5 conduct simultaneously. Following the same steps followed in the case of full-bridge before, we can show that,

Similarly, let consider the diode-overlap after π·2 becoming forward biased, during which π·2,π1,π·6 conduct simultaneously. Again, following the same steps as in thyristor-overlap, we can show,

Net reduction in π π ππππ due to conduction overlaps is,

As in the case without source-inductance, operating waveforms will be different depending on whether πΌ is below or above 60Β°. For πΌ > 60Β°, ο· π π has only 3 ripples per AC cycle. ο· During every overlap π π = 0 ο· Line voltage at the PCC contains 2 notches only, both are down to zero. However, expressions for π π ππππ , βπ π, π·ππ πΉ, π’π, π’π· all remain unchanged.

Waveforms of output voltage, input current, thyristor-1 voltage and voltage at PCC for Ξ± > 60Β°

## Example ac to dc converter circuit

Derive expressions for βπ π,π’π and π’π· for a three-phase semi-converter operating at a delay angle above 60Β°. Hence verify that they are same as for delay angles below 60Β°.

Ans

Let consider the overlap after triggering π1. With respect to operating waveforms given before, π1,π·2,π5 all conduct simultaneously during this interval.

Net reduction of π π ππππ occurs due to thyristor-overlaps only, because diode overlaps are occurring while π π is already zero.

Considering diode overlap after π·4 becoming forward biased, during which π·4, π1, π·2 all conduct simultaneously,

Integrating,

Thus, the expressions of βπ π,π’π and π’π· for πΌ > 60Β° are same as those for πΌ < 60Β°.

The ac to dc converter circuit with suitable examples and sketches are discuss here advanced. ac to dc converter circuit is needed to read.